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You may act as pilot in command of an aircraft unless, within the preceding 24 calendar months, you have accomplished a flight review given in an aircraft, for which you are rated, by an authorized instructor. The instructor who gave you the review must endorse your logbook certifying that you satisfactorily completed the review. One flight review covers everything. If you do not pass the review, you do not get the endorsement. There is no notation of failure to pass the review.


A flight review consists of a minimum of 1 hour of flight training and 1 hour of ground training. The review must include a review of the current general operating and flight rules of part 91 and a review of those maneuvers and procedures that, at the discretion of the person giving the review, are necessary for the pilot to demonstrate the safe exercise of the privileges of the pilot certificate.


You do not need to have a flight review, when you, within the preceding 24 calendar months:

  • Have passed a pilot proficiency check conducted by an examiner, an approved pilot check airman, or a U.S. Armed Force check airman, for a pilot certificate, rating, or operating privilege (this includes practical tests, and required proficiency checks under Part 121 and 135). Flight instructor practical tests, unfortunately, do not count as BFR’s by definition.
  • Have satisfactorily accomplished one or more phases of an FAA-sponsored pilot proficiency award program.
  • You need not accomplish the 1 hour of ground training if you hold a current flight instructor certificate and have satisfactorily completed a renewal of a flight instructor certificate under the provisions in Sec. 61.197 specified in paragraph (a) of this section (Generally, a renewal without a practical test or via a FIRC).


  • A student pilot need not accomplish the flight review required by this section provided he or she is undergoing training for a certificate and has a current solo flight endorsement.
  • The requirements of this section may be accomplished in combination with the requirements of Sec. 61.57 and other applicable recent experience requirements at the discretion of the authorized instructor conducting the flight review. This means the BFR can be part of a checkout, an IPC, or done in any other way which you arrange with your check airman or instructor.

You can even use a flight simulator or flight training device to meet the flight review requirements of this section subject to the following conditions:

  • The flight simulator or flight training device must be used in accordance with an approved course conducted by a training center certificated under part 142 of this chapter.
  • Unless the flight review is undertaken in a flight simulator that is approved for landings, the you must meet the takeoff and landing requirements of Sec. 61.57(a) or Sec. 61.57(b) of this part.
  • The flight simulator or flight training device used must represent an aircraft or set of aircraft for which the pilot is rated.


You need an Instrument proficiency check (IPC/ICC) when you do not meet the instrument experience requirements of Part 61 within the preceding 6 calendar months, or within 6 calendar months after that prescribed time, and you wish to serve as pilot in command under IFR or in weather conditions less than the minimums prescribed for VFR. Note that there is a six month grace period after currency expires during which you can meet the experience requirements on your own, but cannot be PIC except under Visual Flight Rules and weather conditions during this period.

In order to meet the instrument experience requirements, in an airplane, your logbook must reflect the following experience performed within the past six calendar months:

  • At least six instrument approaches (note: means to minimums)
  • Holding procedures
  • Intercepting and tracking courses through the use of navigation systems

This experience may be acquired in an airplane under actual or simulated instrument conditions, or in a flight simulator or flight training device that is representative of the aircraft category for the instrument privileges sought. This experience may be acquired under actual instrument conditions ONLY if you are current or are not ACTING as the PIC if you are reacquiring currency.


The instrument proficiency check must be:

  • Given in an aircraft that is appropriate to the aircraft category
  • Constructed of a representative number of tasks required by the instrument rating practical test
  • For other than a glider, may be given in a flight simulator or flight training device that is representative of the aircraft category


The instrument proficiency check must be given by:

  • An examiner
  • A person authorized by the U.S. Armed Forces to conduct instrument flight tests, provided you are a member of the U.S. Armed Forces
  • A company check pilot who is authorized to conduct instrument flight tests under part 121, 125, or 135 of this chapter, and provided that both you and the check pilot are employees of that operator (has to be signed off as an IPC as well as in the company training records)
  • An authorized flight instructor
  • A person approved by the Administrator to conduct instrument practical tests.
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Multi-Engine Instrument Transitions

If you recently received your instrument rating in a single engine airplane, you will note that your instrument privileges DO NOT allow you to operate under instrument flight rules or in below VFR weather in a multi engine airplane. If you have had your instrument rating for some time, it is likely that you do not have this restriction.

This restriction came about as a result of accidents involving pilots who had completed their instrument ratings in single engine airplanes. Some of these pilots had gone on to purchase/rent multi engine airplanes and then had flown them under instrument flight rules or in weather below VFR minimums without obtaining any additional training in them under actual or simulated instrument conditions.

If you did not complete your instrument rating in a multi engine airplane, and have not demonstrated the multi engine tasks in the instrument PTS, you may not exercise the privileges of your instrument rating in a multi engine airplane. You will have to demonstrate the multi engine tasks of the PTS to have the restriction lifted.

If you received your instrument rating under the old rules, and have a multi-engine rating that is not restricted, you may want to consider obtaining some instrument training in a multi engine airplane, with particular emphasis on engine out emergency procedures

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GPS Training and Certifications

IFR Enroute, Terminal, and Nonprecision Approach certified GPS installations are becoming more common in light aircraft.

Despite the fact that all GPS units do the same things, they do them in different ways and can be complex to learn. Most manufacturers DO NOT recommend their use in actual instrument weather without additional training in visual or simulated instrument flight conditions.

At Venture Air, you can learn to use your GPS safely and efficiently, and in many cases, this training can be easily combined with a BFR and IPC.

If you are in the initial stages of certifying you GPS, Venture Air can assist in making the certification as smooth a possible.

Roger F. Zaruba

Aviation Training (all levels) and Plane Rentals

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